A Comprehensive Portrait
A Decade of War in Ukraine

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A comprehensive portrait of the war: from its origins, to societal and governmental developments, to its impact on living conditions and daily life around the world.
51 245
Killed Ukrainian Soldiers
The total number of killed Ukrainian soldiers since 24. 2. 2022.
Source: UA Losses, 9. 5. 2024
52 789
52 789
Killed Russian Soldiers
The total number of killed Russian soldiers since 24. 2. 2022. The probate registry estimate is~ 85 000.
Source: Mediazona and the BBC Russian Service, May 2024; estimates by Meduza, March 2024
10 582
Killed Ukrainian Civilians
The total number of killed Ukrainian civilians since 24. 2. 2022.
Source: OHCHR, 15 February 2024
6.5M
6.5M
Ukrainian Refugees in the World
The total number of refugees from Ukraine that have been recorded globally.
Source: UNHCR, February 2024
3.41M
Internally Displaced Ukrainians
The total number of internally displaced people in Ukraine.
Source: UNOCHA, 14. 5. 2024
14.6M
14.6M
People in Need in Ukraine
The total number of people in need of humanitarian assistance in Ukraine.
Source: UNOCHA, 14. 5. 2024
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TIMELINE

Historical Context of the War

An overview of the key events since the Ukrainian declaration of independence in 1991.
Swipe to navigate
Ukraine declares its independence.
24th August 1991

The declaration of independence was followed by a referendum on 1st December 1991, in which it was affirmed by an overwhelming majority of the country, including a majority in all regions of Ukraine. Leonid Kravchuk is elected the first president of Ukraine on the same day.

Leonid Kuchma is elected the President of Ukraine
10th July 1994

Kuchma defeats incumbent Leonid Kravchuk in a second round run-off, advocating for pro-market, privatizing reforms, as well as strengthening economic ties with Russia through cooperation with the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Signing of the Budapest Memorandum
5th December 1994

As signatories, Russia, the USA, and the UK commit to respect the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. The soviet-commissioned nuclear weapons then stationed on Ukrainian soil were given up as a result of the treaty.

Russia and Ukraine sign the “Friendship Treaty”
31st May 1997

The treaty confirmed the two countries’ commitment to “respect each other’s territorial integrity and confirm the inviolability of their common borders”, as well as to peacefully settle any disputes.

Vladimir Putin assumes Presidency
3rd December 1999

Vladimir Putin immediately succeeds Boris Yeltsin as President following his resignation. Putin then went on to win the 2000 presidential elections, with strong support from state media outlets aiding in his campaign.

Presidential elections and the Orange Revolution
November - December 2004

Following widespread and credible claims of election fraud in favour of Viktor Yanukovych, a pro-Russian candidate backed by the incumbent Leonid Kuchma, mass protests broke out across Ukraine demanding constitutional reform and the conduct of free and fair elections. The protests were successful, leading to a revote of the second round of the election which took place on 26th December, resulting in the election of Viktor Yushchenko as the 3rd president of Ukraine

Putin addresses NATO members in Bucharest
8th April 2008

Putin sharply criticises the prospect of a NATO membership action plan (MAP) for Ukraine and Georgia, which he described as a “direct threat” to Russian security.

Discussions for an EU Association Agreement
July 2008

President Viktor Yushchenko opens talks in order to secure an EU Association Agreement for Ukraine. Political, economic, and judicial reform were required in order to more closely align with EU standards.

Viktor Yanukovych elected President of Ukraine
17th January 2010

In 2010, Viktor Yanukovych ran for president again, this time winning in a contest considered to be free and fair. Progress towards an EU Association Agreement was soured following the President’s move to detain his political opponent Yulia Tymoshenko.

The Maidan Revolution
November 2013 - February 2014

Yanukovych’s decision to withdraw from an EU Association Agreement in order to develop stronger economic ties with Russia sparked widespread protests. Attempts to put down the protest through violence saw the growth of a movement which rejected the endemic corruption of the Yanukovych regime. After Yanykovych fled to Russia, presidential elections were held in which Petro Poroshenko was elected President

Russia annexes the Crimean Peninsula
February 2014

Soldiers in unmarked uniforms seize key strategic locations on the Crimean Peninsula, facing little resistance. Within a month, a referendum, widely considered to be illegitimate, was held as a means of showing popular support for the region to become part of Russia. The following year, Putin acknowledged the presence of the Russian military in Crimea.

Uprising in Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts
March 2014

Russia-backed separatists seize Ukrainian government buildings in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Eastern Ukraine, declaring two independent republics, the DPR and the LPR.

1st Minsk Agreement Signed
5 September 2015

A ceasefire agreement, overseen by the OSCE, was signed between Russia, Ukraine, and representatives of the DPR and LPR militias. It failed to provide a lasting peace, leading to the signing of a 2nd Minsk agreement in 2015.

Vladimir Putin’s essay is published
12th July 2021

An essay attributed to Vladimir Putin argues for the historical and cultural unity of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. The essay draws criticism from within Ukraine and the West, and is denounced as both historical revisionism and a false pretext for a future invasion of Ukraine.

Russia launches full-scale invasion of Ukraine
24th February 2022

Vladimir Putin announces the launch of a “special military operation” in Ukraine in order to “demilitarise” and “denazify" the country. Russian forces cross the border into Ukraine from both Russia and Belarus. The invasion is condemned by the US and EU, and is faced by strong resistance from the armed forces of Ukraine.

Our Entries
Maps & charts

Visualising the War

Preview of selected maps and charts from specialised Organisations, which illustrate crucial aspects of the war.
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Data analysis and visualization: Kelly Kiki/iMEdD,
based on data published by resourcetrade.earth/Chatham House
License of use: CC BY-NC 4.0
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce at dui at augue volutpat sagittis. Etiam non urna rhoncus, dignissim quam a, euismod quam.
Data analysis and visualization: Kelly Kiki/iMEdD,
based on data published by resourcetrade.earth/Chatham House
License of use: CC BY-NC 4.0
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce at dui at augue volutpat sagittis. Etiam non urna rhoncus, dignissim quam a, euismod quam.
Data analysis and visualization: Kelly Kiki/iMEdD,
based on data published by resourcetrade.earth/Chatham House
License of use: CC BY-NC 4.0
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce at dui at augue volutpat sagittis. Etiam non urna rhoncus, dignissim quam a, euismod quam.
Data analysis and visualization: Kelly Kiki/iMEdD,
based on data published by resourcetrade.earth/Chatham House
License of use: CC BY-NC 4.0
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce at dui at augue volutpat sagittis. Etiam non urna rhoncus, dignissim quam a, euismod quam.
Data analysis and visualization: Kelly Kiki/iMEdD,
based on data published by resourcetrade.earth/Chatham House
License of use: CC BY-NC 4.0

Learn More from Other Resources

From documentaries to databases and debates, these resources, selected by our team from across the web, will help you understand the war and its full context.

Videos & Documentaries

Lectures & Debates

Articles, Reports & Books

Educational Resources

Stats, Databases & Infographics

About This Project

A Decade of War in Ukraine aims to provide a comprehensive portrait of the ongoing war in Ukraine. This resource goes beyond existing online sources such as the news, documentaries and analyses to capture the full reality of the conflict on the global level. Through specialist entries from academics, researchers and journalists, we hope to broaden everyone's understanding of the causes and consequences of the war in Ukraine, Russia and beyond.
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